Font size




Please select your preferred language

The EURO-WABB Project

An EU Rare Diseases Registry for Wolfram syndrome, Alström syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome and other rare diabetes syndromes.


What is meant by good control?

If your diabetes is well controlled you will feel well, grow well and be able to take part in all the same things as other people your age. What we mean by good control is that the level of glucose in your blood and urine will be nearly the same as children who do not have diabetes.

 Person without DiabetesPerson with Diabetes
Urine GlucoseNegativeNegative
Blood Glucose3-7 mmol/L4-8 mmol/L
HbA1c3.6%-5.9%<7.5% or <58mmol/mol.

If you have diabetes and you keep things controlled around these levels you will sometimes have low blood glucose feelings or hypos. This tells you and us that your diabetes is pretty well controlled and it only becomes a worry if hypos happen too frequently or you need help from other people to treat the hypo regularly.

What is HbA1c?

This is the measurement that shows how your blood glucose levels have been on average over the previous 6-8 weeks, as this is how long a red blood cells lives in your body. In the blood stream, glucose from your food sticks to a part of your red blood cells called haemoglobin. The higher your blood glucose levels become, the more glucose attaches to your haemoglobin. By measuring the amount of glucose attached to the haemoglobin we can tell what blood glucose control has been like for about 6 - 8 weeks. This test is usually done every 3 months or so (when you come to clinic) and helps you to know whether your diabetes is well controlled. If you keep your blood glucose in good range – 4-8 mmol/L before meals and 4-9 mmol/L after meals most of the time the HbA1c will be within target of <58 mmol/mol (<7.5%). The reason nurses and doctors take so much notice of this test is that if it is out of range for too long the risk of developing complications of diabetes increases dramatically) hyperlink to complications.